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We have seen that the total mechanical energy of the system is conserved if the forces doing work on it are conservative. If some of the forces involved are non-conservative, part of the mechanical energy may get transformed into other forms such as heat, light and sound. However, the total energy of an isolated system does not change, as long as one accounts for all forms of energy. Energy may be transformed from one form to another but the total energy of an isolated system remains constant. Energy can neither be created, nor destroyed.

Since the universe as a whole may be viewed as an isolated system, the total energy of the universe is a constant. If one part of the universe loses energy, another part must gain an equal amount of energy.

The principle of conservation of energy cannot be proved. However, no violation of this principle has been observed. The concept of conservation and transformation of energy in to various forms links together various branches of physics, chemistry and life sciences. It provides a unifying, enduring element in our scientific pursuits. From engineering point of view all electronic, communication and mechanical devices rely on some forms of energy transformation.