Ions and ionic bonds
Describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain
An ion is defined as atom with a non-zero charge, an ion can have a positive or negative charge.
When an atom loses an electron, they gain a negative charge and become a negative ion called an anion. When an atom gains an electron, they gain a positive a charge and become a positive ion called a cation.
Describe the formation of ionic bonds between metallic and non-metallic elements
Ionic bonding involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. The atoms are held together by electrostatic forces and form giant ionic lattices.
When a metallic and non-metallic element reacts, the electrons from the outer most shell of the metal atom are transferred to the non-metallic atom. The metal atom loses electrons, thus becoming a cation. The non-metal atom gains electrons, thus become an anion.
Describe the formation of ionic bonds between elements from Groups I and VII
When a group 1 element and group 7 element react, an electron from the outer most shell of the group 1 atom is transferred to the group 7 atom. The group 1 atom loses an electron, thus gaining a +1 charge. The group 7 atom gains electrons, thus gaining a -1 charge.
When the group 7 atom gains an electron, their outer most shell has 8 electrons thus allowing the atom to reach stable state.
Describe the lattice structure of ionic compounds as a regular arrangement of alternating positive and negative ions
In an ionic lattice, the atoms form a regular lattice arrangement where ions form a regular pattern of paired oppositely charged ions.