A generator is a mechanical device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy
Principle: The operation of an electric generator is based on the electromagnetic induction idea. The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction refers to the generation of electric current in a circuit by varying the magnetic flux connected to the circuit. The total number of magnetic field lines passing through a particular region is known as magnetic flux. Moving a coil relative to a magnet alters the magnetic flux associated with the coil, resulting in emf in the coil.
Faraday introduced two laws that govern electromagnetic induction
- When the amount of magnetic flux linked to a circuit changes, an emf is formed. The induced emf persists for as long as the magnetic flux varies.
- In a circuit, the amplitude of induced emf is exactly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux coupled with the circuit. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule may be used to identify the direction of the induced current produced in the coil: “Stretch the thumb, first finger, and center finger of your right hand such that they are perpendicular to each other. The first finger points in the direction of the magnetic field, the thumb in the direction of conductor velocity, and the middle finger in the direction of induced current.”
The coil of the electric generator is spun in a magnetic field to generate induced current. The resultant induced current fluctuates in amplitude and direction at a rate of thousands of times per second. Alternating current is the name given to this sort of energy (AC).
Direct current DC is used when the current produced by the electric generator does not change in direction or quantity. Depending on the type of current produced by the electric generator, we have a variety of generators.
Types: Electric generators generate both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC). A DC generator produces direct power, while an AC generator produces alternating power. The difference between generator and motor are given below